Appendix:Azrán pronunciation

From The Languages of David J. Peterson
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The Azrán language has 23 consonants, 5 vowels, and 2 glides.

Standard Romanization

Letter IPA English example Notes
a a father
b b bog
ch chunk
d d dog A dental pronunciation.
e e bait
f f food
g g good
gh ɣ Like a voiced version of the ch in German Buch.
i i beet
j jog
k k skill
kh x Like the ch in German Buch.
l l left
m m man
n n no
ng ŋ sing
ny ɲ minion
o o coat
p p span
r r Spanish perro A nice trilled r.
s s see
t t stop A dental pronunciation.
u u rude
v v voice
w w wet
y j yawn
z z zoo
j ʒ azure

Phonetics

Azrán has phonemic tone and long vowels.

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m [m] n [n] ny [ɲ] ng [ŋ]
Plosive voiceless p [p] t [t] ch [tʃ] k [k]
voiced b [b] d [d] j [dʒ] g [ɡ]
Fricative voiceless f [f] s [s] kh [x]
voiced v [v] z [z] zh [ʒ] gh [ɣ]
Lateral l [l]
Approximant w [w] r [r] y [j]

Vowels

Azrán has 5 phonetically distinct vowels in two lengths:

Front Central Back
Close i [i], ii [iː] u [u], uu [uː]
Mid e [e], ee [eː] o [o], oo [oː]
Open a [a], aa [aː]

Tone

Azrán has two tone levels—high and low—and three tone melodies: high, low, and falling. The tones are indicated in the romanization in the following ways (using the vowel a as an example):

  • High Tone: á (acute accent)
  • Low Tone: a (no accent)
  • Falling Tone: â (circumflex accent)