Appendix:Veda pronunciation

From The Languages of David J. Peterson
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The Veda language has 28 consonants, 6 vowels, and 2 glides.

Standard Romanization

Letter IPA English example Notes
a a father
b b bog
ch chop
d d dog
e e bait
f f food
g g good
gh ɣ~ʁ - Like Arabic gh in maghrab.
h h ham
i i beet
j jet
k k skill
kh x~χ - Like German ch in Buch.
l l left
m m man
n n no
ng ŋ sing Can occur word-initially.
ny ɲ New York (certain pronunciations) Like Spanish ñ.
o o coat
p p span
q q - Like a [k] but further back in the mouth.
r ɾ battle
s s see
sh ʃ sheep
t t stop
u u rude
v v voice
w w wet
y j yawn
z z zoo
zh ʒ casual


Veda uses [ǝ] as a phoneme, with equal status to all the other vowels. It also features word-initial [ŋ].


Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m [m] n [n] (ny [ɲ]) ng [ŋ]
Plosive voiceless p [p] t [t], ts [ts] ch [tʃ] k [k] q [q] ' [ʔ]
voiced b [b] d [d], dz [dz] j [dʒ] g [g]
Fricative voiceless f [f] s [s] sh [ʃ] kh [x~χ] h [h]
voiced v [v] z [z] zh [ʒ] gh [ɣ~ʁ]
Lateral l [l]
Approximant w [w] r [ɾ] y [j]


Veda has 6 phonetically distinct vowels:

Front Central Back
Close i [i] u [u]
Mid e [e] ǝ [ǝ] o [o]
Open a [a]


Veda has two diphthongs: yu and wi.