Appendix:Astapori Valyrian pronunciation
The Astapori Valyrian language has 19 consonants, 6 vowels and no glides.
|a||a||US bot, UK bath|
|gh||ɣ ~ ʁ||—|
|kh||x ~ χ||Bach, or Chanukkah||Only found in loanwords.|
|n||n||no||Assimilates to following palatal(?), velar or uvular consonant.|
|r||ɾ||—||Mostly a tapped (possibly a trill in some instances)|
|th||θ||think||Possibly found in loanwords?|
Astapori Valyrian has retained several phonological elements from Ghiscari, as well as innovated new sounds via regular sound changes from High Valyrian.
|Nasal||m [m]||n [n]||(n [n̠ ~ ŋ ~ ɴ])|
|Plosive||voiceless||p [p]||t [t]||k [k]||q [q]|
|voiced||b [b]||d [d]||g [g]|
|Fricative||voiceless||(th [θ])||s [s]||(kh [x ~ χ])||h [h]|
|voiced||v [v]||dh [ð]||z [z]||j [ʒ]||gh [ɣ ~ ʁ]|
- [n̠], [ŋ] and [ɴ] are in parentheses because they are not phonemes, but allophones of /n/. The phoneme /n/ assimilates to a following velar, uvular, or possibly even palatal consonant.
- [θ] is in parentheses because it occurs only in words of foreign origin, e.g. Dothraki [ˈdoθraki] "Dothraki."
- [x ~ χ] occurs in borrowings, or words that come directly from Ghiscari.
Astapori Valyrian has 6 phonetically distinct vowels:
|Close||i [i], y [y]||u [u]|
|Mid||e [e]||o [o]|
Unlike High Valyrian, Astapori Valyrian has few diphthongs, and such as there are occur rarely. High Valyrian diphthongs generally smoothed out into single vowels, for example HV hae "as" → AV he. However, it appears that HV āe becomes AV ae, as in āeksio → aeske (on the other hand, it does smoothe in dāerves → derve). The diphthong ao is attested in the word vaovaori (the meaning of which is uncertain: it may be "mewling"), and it is likely that at least in some cases this is the outcome of HV āo. Aeske also shows that short "rising diphthongs" regularly smooth out at the end of a word, but it is not clear if this happens in all positions, or how rising diphthongs with a long vowel are affected.